A Network is a means of communicating with several other computers and sharing their resources. The way in which networks work on a QL or derivative depends upon the hardware being used.
Standard QLs and the THOR family of computers have two network ports which work in exactly the same way, and enable up to 64 computers to be connected together serially.
Unfortunately, the protocol used for the Network is peculiar to Sinclair machines and only QLs (including AURORA), QXLs, THORs and ZX Spectrums may be connected together in this way. This is known as QNet. If you only need to network these machines together then you can take advantage of several different options to get the most out of the original QNet.
To enable ATARIs and PCs to be connected together in a Network with Sinclair QLs, you will need to use the SERNET and MIDINET drivers which allow the machines to be connected via serial ports and MIDI ports respectively (although MIDI ports can only be connected between ATARI computers).
These networks will work alongside the standard QNet and therefore you can have several circles of computers networked together, all controlled by one central machine, say with some linked via SERNET, some via MIDINET and others linked via QNet.
Another option available to users wishing to join machines together in a Network is to use Amadeus Interlink (© Di - Ren), which allows you to connect up to 255 machines in a Network. These machines can be either QLs, THORs or PCs at present and this Network system is significantly faster than the original QNet.
Di-Ren also produce a QL-PC Fileserver which allows you to link a QL to a PC with a cable and then this allows the QL to use the PC’s DOS devices (including floppy disks, CD-Rom drive, hard disks, Networks and Serial ports). This will allow you to use PC format disks and on later versions, you can even use the PC’s screen to display the QL’s output. This is therefore similar to a small Network device.
In DIY Toolkit Volume N there is a very interesting program NETPAL which allows one computer to completely control another computer - this works by machine 2 opening a channel on machine 1 where the user can enter his commands, which are then executed on machine 2. This can be very useful to allow you to use several QLs with only one Monitor (or keyboard), but unfortunately, this program does have its limitations due to problems with sending control characters over the Network (such as CTRL C) and also a CON device opened over the Network does not seem to delete characters from the screen properly..
This system allows Standard QLs, QXLs, AURORAs, THOR computers and ZX Spectrums (with Interface 1 attached) to be connected together in a network. However, although data can be sent to a ZX Spectrum, the data is corrupted if the Spectrum tries to send more than one byte to another type of machine.
Minerva, SMSQ/E and Toolkit II all improve the reliability of this Network system. if you are not using Toolkit II, Minerva v1.96 is ideally required to ensure reliable input of data over the Network.
A17.1.1 Connecting Machines¶
To connect the machines, a cable must be used to connect one network port on each computer to one of the ports on the next computer in line. Having chained all of the computers together in this fashion, the Network should be completed by connecting the last computer in the chain to the first, thus completing a circle (although this is not always necessary).
The cable need only be twin core, and it is advisable in a large Network to use low-capacitance cable (eg. bell wire), connecting the centres of each jack to each other and the outsides to each other. The maximum amount of cable that can be reliably used is approximately 100 metres, however, the less the better.
Unfortunately the network hardware on the standard QL is not always reliable, but if you experience problems, it might be worth trying either a different QL or swapping the leads over. THOR XVIs should work without any problems, however, if you intend linking several QLs together, it is advisable to install Toolkit II on ROM (or SMSQ/E) in each of them (the memory only version of Toolkit II cannot improve the network due to timing). Minerva or SMSQ/E on all of the machines will also improve the Network handling.
Each computer (known as a station) must be given a separate station number so that it can be clearly identified within the Network. This station number is given to the machine when it is turned on (this will always be one) and so must be reset on each machine by the command NET.
A17.1.2 The Device Driver¶
Data is sent through the Network ports normally by using the NET device driver, which has the format:
NET<direction><station> (QL ROM)
NET<direction><station>_<buffer> (Toolkit II, THOR XVI)
The parameters of the NET device have the following meanings:
<direction>This is the direction in which data is to be sent. There is no default and this therefore must be one of the following letters:
I - This is a listening station (input only)
O - This is a transmitting station (output only)
<station> This is the number of the station to communicate with and is in the form _n, where n represents the station number of the other machine you wish to communicate with.
n=0 is treated as a special case - see below.
The default is _0.
This Device Driver allows data to either be transmitted to a specific machine, or broadcast to any machine which is listening to the Network.
A17.1.3 Sending / Receiving Data¶
To broadcast data (sending it to all machines in the Network) you need to open a channel to NETO_0, for example:
To listen to data which is being Broadcast, the listening stations will need to open a channel NETI_0, for example with:
If you open a net-in channel and specify your own station number, this is treated as a general listening station, allowing you to receive any data sent to that station by any machine in the Network. For example, you could use:
NET 12: OPEN_IN #4, NETI_12
to set up a general listening station.
If you want to open a net-in channel which will only listen for data from a specific machine in the Network, you will need to specify the station number of that machine, for example:
On station 3, enter:
NET 3: OPEN_NEW #3, NETO_12
Then on station 12, enter:
NET 12:OPEN_IN #3, NETI_3
will set up a link between stations 3 and 12 which only those machines can use. To allow station 12 to send data to station 3, you will also need to open a net-out channel, with:
OPEN_NEW #4, NETO_3
and to enable station 3 to listen to it, you could use on station 3:
OPEN_IN #4, NETI_3
(this allows station 3 to listen to any messages sent to it over the network by any other machine).
Each network channel can be input only or output only, thus bi-directional channels are not allowed. However, you can open as many channels as you like onto the Network on each machine, some of which may be output channels whilst others are input channels. If you try to send data down an input channel (or read data from an output channel), then a ‘Bad Parameter’ error will be returned.
Due to the way in which the data being sent over the Network ports is tested, you will need to open the output side of a Network link before the input side is opened, as otherwise, the two computers may miss each other’s data header. If you later need to close the output port, you will need to inform the computers which are listening for data before the port is closed, as they themselves will need to close their input ports (any attempt to read any further data once the output port has been closed will result in an ‘End of File’ error). Only once the output port has been re-opened is it safe for them to re-open the input ports.
For this reason, if you plan to write a program which may open and close the output port several times in a session, it would be useful to have a secondary output port open at all times, which can be used to Broadcast to the listening stations when to open and/or close their own input ports.
Data is transmitted in packets of a specified size (the size depends on the type of device driver). The size of the packet determines the smallest amount of data that can be sent - any spare values will be set to zero. If the amount of data is greater than the packet size, then it will be sent as several packets. However, a packet will only be sent down the Network if it is full, therefore if some data remains to be sent which does not completely fill a packet, the sending machine will need to CLOSE the channel, or flush the network (this requires a specialised routine - FLUSH will not work on a network device) in order to send the remaining pieces of data.
The NET device is greatly improved if Toolkit II is present (or a THOR XVI is being used), and we shall deal with this separately.
A17.1.4 QNet without Toolkit II¶
Data is transmitted in packets of 255 bytes preceded by a small Network header in the following format:
|0||NET.HEDR||byte||Destination station number (equivalent to NCIRIS on the Spectrum)|
|1||NET.SELF||byte||Number of sending station|
|2||NET.BLKL||byte||LSB of data block number|
|3||NET.BLKH||byte||MSB of data block number (note the reverse order because of the way in which words are stored for the Z80 on the Spectrum)|
|4||NET.TYPE||byte||Packet type: 0 data, 1 last block (EOF)|
|5||NET.NBYT||byte||Number of bytes in data block (0 to 255)|
The effects of the header depend on whether the sending machine is Broadcasting (ie. using NETO_0), in which case there is no handshaking, or not (in which case handshaking is enabled).
Before the packet is sent down the Network, the sending machine listens to the Network to check if it is being used. Once it is free, the sending machine then sends the header and if handshaking is enabled, waits for an acknowledgement from the destination machine that it is ready to receive.
Having received this acknowledgement (or if it is Broadcasting), the packet is sent. Once this is sent, if handshaking is enabled, then the sending machine again waits for the destination machine to acknowledge safe receipt; and if no such acknowledgement is received, tries all over again.
This means that no check is made on the data if the sending machine is Broadcasting, in which case it makes it very unreliable to Broadcast messages of more than 255 bytes (unless you have Toolkit II, a THOR XVI or Minerva; all of which improve the reliability, although it is still not 100%). This does also mean that if no stations are actually listening, the whole of the data will be lost.
When receiving data through the Network, the command EOF will only detect the end of the data if there are no more bytes to be read from the channel and the NET.TYPE in the header was set to EOF. The receiving machine will need to use the command PEND or EOFW to check if there is any data in the channel waiting to be read, unless you wish the program to just wait around for the data to be sent.
When the channel is closed, the device will try to output one final packet of data (this means that a minimum of one packet can be sent). If it fails to send the packet, then it will try a further 1399 times (causing an extremely long delay), after which the QL will give up. No error message is returned to tell the sending computer that it has failed to send the data. This means that CLOSEing a NETO channel, even though no data has been sent through the Network, produces an extremely long delay before the computer can do anything else (and may even crash some versions of the QL ROM if nothing has been written to the port - see CLOSE).
COPY flp1_boot TO neto_2
copies the file flp1_boot to station 2.
A17.1.5 QNet Under Toolkit II¶
This is basically the same as the standard QNet driver, except that improvements have been made to improve handshaking and also to ensure that when an output channel is closed, whilst the driver keeps trying to send the last packet, the Break key is also checked for on the sending machine, allowing you to break into this early.
The Net header for the fileserver has also been improved to allow blocks of up to 1000 bytes to be sent at a time and also to improve the checksum.
If the driver fails to send the last packet (despite retrying 1399 times), or the Break key is detected, the message ‘Net Aborted’ is printed to #0 (although this does not stop the program), warning the user that the Network has failed.
The syntax has been extended to include a parameter <buffer> which represents the size of a buffer to be opened to receive bytes over the Network. It is in the form _n kilobytes and is really only applicable where the channel is NETI_0, as it specifies the size of the buffer (in kilobytes) to store the whole of a Broadcast message as it is transmitted. If no <buffer> is specified, it will use all but 2K of the free memory.
Toolkit II also implements a fileserver which allows a machine to directly access resources on another computer, by OPENing channels over the Network. Please refer to the FSERVE and NFS_USE keywords for details about the fileserver.
The MEM device can also be used to access another machine’s resources over the Network. This is discussed in the Appendix on Device Drivers.
A17.2 Flexynet (DIY Toolkit - VOL X)¶
This can be used alongside the standard and Toolkit II QNet (subject to certain limitations - see below). The code will need to be loaded into either ROM (if you have an EPROM blower) or fast RAM (not the QL’s internal 128K RAM - an expanded machine is therefore needed). Current versions of Flexynet will not work on machines which do not use a 68000 or 68008 chip (such as QXLs or Super Gold Cards), unless the cache has been disabled.
It has been implemented with a view to speeding up the transfer of data across the QNet, by allowing you to set the speed at which the data is to be transmitted (using the NETRATE command). The speed which the Networks will support depends upon the machines which are connected to QNet, with faster machines being able to receive data much faster than under the standard QNet (although transmission speed depends upon the speed of the machine at the other end of the QNet).
Although this can be used alongside QNet, there are really only two commands which allow you to send or receive multiple bytes sent over the network (NETSEND and NETREAD). There is currently no way of specifying which machine the data is to be sent to and therefore all machines in the network will be able to read the data sent.
You should not try to use both the standard QNet and Flexynet at the same time - we would recommend that a message is broadcast over the Network to all of the other machines first of all specifying that Flexynet is to be used and which machine is to receive the data and that the sending machine should then wait to hear that all other machines have closed down their network channels and that the receiving machine is ready to receive the data.
The commands NETBEEP and NETPOLL have also been added to allow the QL to use the Networks as a rudimentary form of digital sampling and even to generate sounds through the Network ports.
This extension provided with the Atari Emulators and SMSQ/E allows you to connect several ATARI computers in a Network by linking their MIDI ports together using suitable leads. As with QNet the machines must be arranged to form a complete circle with the MIDI OUT port of each machine being connected to the MIDI IN port of the next machine in the Network.
The Network will not work unless all machines are switched on (as with QNet) and unless all machines are running the MIDINET device driver, installed with LRESPR flp1_MIDINET_REXT (although the fileserver job need not be running except on the master machine).
Once connected, this system works very much in the same way as the QNet under Toolkit II, except that some file protection is provided to stop other machines on the Network accessing important files (see MIDINET).
The following commands are provided:
- MNET - Set the station number of this machine.
- MNET% - Return the station number.
- MNET_S% - Confirm whether a machine with a given station number is connected to the Network.
- MNET_ON - Switch on the device driver.
- MNET_OFF - Switch off the device driver (this allows the MIDI port to be used independently).
- MNET_USE - Change the letter which identifies the device driver (normally N).
- MIDINET - Start up the fileserver.
This extension provided with the Atari Emulators and SMSQ/E allows you to connect several different computers in a Network by linking their serial ports together using suitable leads.
This can therefore be used to connect all machines which currently are able to run QL software.
If you only have two machines in a Network, you can connect them by using a Null-Modem-Cable. However, with more than two machines, as with QNet the machines must be arranged to form a complete circle so that all of the output signals from one machine are connected to the input signals of the next machine.
The Network will not work unless all machines are switched on (as with QNet), all machines are running the SERNET device driver (installed with LRESPR flp1_SERNET_REXT) and SERNET has been configured on each machine to inform it which serial port it is to use for communications. Also, all of the machines must be set to the same BAUD rate before SERNET is loaded.
In order to improve the network, handshaking should be implemented on all ports, therefore to allow SERNET to use ser3 you may configure it to use: SER3hd (presuming hardware handshaking is available). If hardware handshaking is not available to some machines on the Network, you will need to use SER3xd on all the machines.
Once connected, this system works very much in the same way as the MIDINET.
The following commands are provided:
- SNET - Set the station number of this machine.
- SNET% - Returns the station number.
- SNET_S% - Confirm whether a machine with a given station number is connected to the Network.
- SNET_ROPEN - Re-opens the serial ports in case you have closed one from another program.
- SNET_USE - Change the letter which identifies the device driver (normally S).
- SERNET - Start up the fileserver.
A17.6 QL - PC Fileserver¶
This is a software package which allows you (with the use of a cable which can be supplied) to link a QL to a PC computer via a free serial port and allows you to access the various devices provided by the PC. However, if you wish to use the package with Minerva, you will need at least v1.02 of the QL-PC Fileserver package. The original version will not work with the Super Gold Card and these users will need the QL-PC Fileserver II version (see below).
Basically, once the system has been set up and linked into both the QL and PC, you have to create a fileserver task on the PC by entering a new command on the PC (QLNET) and then on the QL side, simply set the correct BAUD rate (for the PC) and enter the command PCSERVE to inform the QL which serial port on the QL is linked to the PC.
Having done this, you are provided with various commands to find out details of the drives connected to the PC and can access them by simply using the device pcd, where DIR pcd1_ will provide a directory listing of drive A: on the PC, and DIR pcd3_ will provide a directory listing of drive C: on the PC (normally the hard disk).
Files can be saved onto the PC’s devices in QL format to be read at a later stage by any other QL. You can also access the PC’s printer (PC_DEV ser2,lpt1 redirects all output to ser2 to the lpt1 device on the PC) and even the PC’s screen (the device PSCR is used to signify a channel is to be OPENed on the PC’s screen, replacing the QL’s SCR device).
Although speed is somewhat slower than using devices plugged into the QL, at least this means that you could get away without having to buy any disk drives (floppy or hard disk) for the QL.
One other thing that this package does is allow the QL to connect into a PC network, thus opening up the world of the PC in a cost-effective manner.
QL-PC Fileserver II is a newer version of the package which is much enhanced, allowing the QL to be connected to the PC via Amadeus Interlink as well as the serial ports. Full QL filename lengths are supported in this version and if you use the PC’s screen to display the QL’s output, this now supports QL windowing, colour and CON devices.